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Updated: 03 May 2014, 22:44

Originally written: 14 November 2005

Should have:
Must have:
Must not have:
Should not have:
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Optional search information and explanation

All searches are case insensitive. Searching for “soCIALism” would find “soCIALism”, “Socialism”, “SOCIALISM”, and “SOcialISM”, etc. if they were there to be found.

You can search for a phrase by enclosing it in double quotes. e.g. “find this phrase” will try to find “find this phrase” but not “find this silly phrase”.

An example using all four word search specifications. If you want to find articles which
  -   preferably mention oranges and lemons,
        but do not want to reject articles which do not,
  -   must mention apples,
  -   must not mention grapes,
  -   preferably do not mention pears,
        but do not want to reject articles which do,
  -   must have the exact phrase “cherry pies”.

Should have:orange* lemon*
Must have:apple* “cherry pies”
Must not have:grape grapes
Should not have:pears

The asterisk is used as a “wild card” (only valid at the end of a word) so that we will search for lemon, or lemons, or lemonade. We also require that apple, or apples, or applesauce (any word starting with apple) is in the article. We do not want grape or grapes, but we cannot specify grape* because that would also exclude grapefruit, and it is OK if the article discusses grapefruit. When specifying phrases, such as “cherry pies” be sure to use the double-quote character.

Be careful with asterisks, because they can find a lot of articles. Also, be aware that if you specify too many words must be present, you may not find any articles.

Words such as “the,” “as,” and “it,” are ignored because they would be found in almost every article.

The right sidebar will not be searched in any case. The only sections searched are:
   Home pages,
   Frequently Asked Questions,
   Literature, and
   News Perspective.
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